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  • 经典用语大全
     
     
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    首 页 歇后语 广告语 座右铭 流行语 标语大全 口号大全 贺词大全 格言大全 名言大全 诗歌大全 对联大全 谚语大全
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    对联的起源、形式、发展及欣赏

    来源: 经典用语大全 作者: 笑书 发布时间:2011-08-10 16:22

    【内容概况】对联起于何时?对联起源于书桃符。远在周代就有用桃木来镇鬼驱邪的风俗。桃符本来只是挂在大门两旁的长方形桃木板。到每年春节前夕,人们总要用新桃符替换下旧桃符。王安石的千门万户瞳瞳日,总把新桃换旧符说的就是此事。 至于在桃符上题对子,则是自西蜀孟......

      对联起于何时?对联起源于书桃符。远在周代就有用桃木来镇鬼驱邪的风俗。桃符本来只是挂在大门两旁的长方形桃木板。到每年春节前夕,人们总要用新桃符替换下旧桃符。王安石的“千门万户瞳瞳日,总把新桃换旧符”说的就是此事。

      至于在桃符上题对子,则是自西蜀孟昶之后而盛行于宋代!妒耔弧匪担“蜀未归宋之前,昶令学士辛寅逊题桃符版于寝门,以其词非工,自命笔云:‘新年纳余庆,佳节号长春。’后蜀平,朝廷以吕余庆知成都,而长春太祖诞节名也。”这即是对联起源的故事。

      一、对联的起源

      对联最早的起源在西蜀,较为广泛的应用,则是在宋代。元代则有些冷落。对联的真正鼎盛时期,则是在明、清两代。

      二、对联的形式和特点

      1.对称

      对称,是艺术美的规律之一。对联形式上的主要特点就是对称,从对联的语言、声调、内容、形式(字数)上都要求对称。就这一点来说,对联很象格律诗中的颔联和颈联,也有些象骈体文中的对偶句。对联的对仗,与格律诗的对仗大体相同。从辞语上讲,基本上是名词对名词,动词对动词,形容词对形容词,双声叠词对双声叠词,实词对实词,虚词对虚词。如:

      山外斜阳湖外雪    窗前流水枕前书

      山深松翠冷      树密鸟声幽

      莺莺燕燕翠翠红红处处融融冶冶  风风雨雨花花草草年年暮暮朝朝

      另外,对联还有种种形式的对仗,什么嵌字对、顶针对、拆字对、谐音对、返复对、叠字对等等。如:

      嵌字对:悲哉秋之为气,惨矣瑾其可怀

      这是题秋瑾墓的挽联,嵌秋瑾二字。

      顶针对:金水河边金线柳,金线柳穿金鱼口

      玉栏杆外玉簪花,玉簪花插玉人头

      拆字对:琴瑟琵琶,八大王一般头面

      魑魅魍魉,四小鬼各样肚肠

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